The Ministries Responsible for the Education of Special Needs Children in Malaysia
In line with the national education philosophy, the teaching and learning of SEN children shall focus on physical, emotional, spiritual and intellectual development.
Programmes are conducted based on the policies and acts that are made by the Ministry of Education Malaysia:
- Akta Pendidikan 1996, Bab 8.
- Akta Pendidikan (Pindaan) 2002.
- Peraturan -Peraturan Pendidikan (Pendidikan Khas) 1997.
- Keputusan Jawatankuasa Dasar, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia [Jawatankuasa Perancang Pendidikan (JPP), Mesyuarat Pengurusan Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia, Jawatankuasa Kurikulum Pusat (JKP) dan Mesyuarat Pengurusan Jabatan Pendidikan Khas].
and International declarations:
- United Nations’ World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons (1983).
- The World’s Declaration on Education for All (1990).
- The United Nations’ Standard Rules on the Equalisation of Opportunities for Person With Disabilities (1993).
- The Framework for Action on Special Needs Education (Salamanca Statement) 1994.
The education program for SEN children is under the administration and supervision of three ministries:
Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE)
The Ministry of Education shall provide the education for students with visual and hearing impairments as well as learning disorders who require special education needs.
Children with learning difficulties as listed below shall be under the responsibility of Ministry of Education:
(1) Down Syndrome (2) Mild Autism (3) Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (4) Mild Mental Retardation (5) Specific Learning Problems Eg. Dyslexia (6) Hearing difficulties and Visual impairment
The role and responsibilities of MOE are documented in the Education Act 1996, Education Rules and Regulations 1997 (Special Needs 1997, section II 3(2). MOE has to provide Special Needs Schools and necessities for students with visual and hearing impairment. MOE also has to organize integration programmes for children with learning disorders together with visual and hearing impairment.
This should be made available in pre-school, primary, primary, secondary and vocational schools using exclusive and semi inconclusive teaching methods. The duration of learning period for primary school is six years, meanwhile it is five years for secondary and could be extended to an additional maximum of two years depending to the students’ needs
Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development (KPWKM)
The Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development provides education services for children with:
- Severe Physical Disabilities
- Average and Severe Mental Disorder
- Other disabilities that prevent the child to participate at the schools provided by the Ministry of Education, Malaysia
Ministry of Health Malaysia (MOH)
The Ministry of Health, Malaysia shall provide on-going advice, screening and health related support. It covers the whole categories of SEN children.